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Solid State Physics, 2nd Edition
Germany Belgium France Netherlands Finland Switzerland United Kingdom Luxembourg Sweden Saudi Arabia Other Austria China Norway Italy Qatar United States Spain Oman Canada Find jobs by popular employers. During the early Cold War, research in solid state physics was often not restricted to solids, which led some physicists in the s and s to found the field of condensed matter physics , which organized around common techniques used to investigate solids, liquids, plasmas, and other complex matter.
Many properties of materials are affected by their crystal structure. This structure can be investigated using a range of crystallographic techniques, including X-ray crystallography , neutron diffraction and electron diffraction. The sizes of the individual crystals in a crystalline solid material vary depending on the material involved and the conditions when it was formed.
Most crystalline materials encountered in everyday life are polycrystalline , with the individual crystals being microscopic in scale, but macroscopic single crystals can be produced either naturally e. Real crystals feature defects or irregularities in the ideal arrangements, and it is these defects that critically determine many of the electrical and mechanical properties of real materials.
Properties of materials such as electrical conduction and heat capacity are investigated by solid state physics.
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An early model of electrical conduction was the Drude model , which applied kinetic theory to the electrons in a solid. By assuming that the material contains immobile positive ions and an "electron gas" of classical, non-interacting electrons, the Drude model was able to explain electrical and thermal conductivity and the Hall effect in metals, although it greatly overestimated the electronic heat capacity. Arnold Sommerfeld combined the classical Drude model with quantum mechanics in the free electron model or Drude-Sommerfeld model. Here, the electrons are modelled as a Fermi gas , a gas of particles which obey the quantum mechanical Fermi—Dirac statistics.
Solid State Physics
The free electron model gave improved predictions for the heat capacity of metals, however, it was unable to explain the existence of insulators. The nearly free electron model is a modification of the free electron model which includes a weak periodic perturbation meant to model the interaction between the conduction electrons and the ions in a crystalline solid. By introducing the idea of electronic bands , the theory explains the existence of conductors , semiconductors and insulators. The solutions in this case are known as Bloch states. Since Bloch's theorem applies only to periodic potentials, and since unceasing random movements of atoms in a crystal disrupt periodicity, this use of Bloch's theorem is only an approximation, but it has proven to be a tremendously valuable approximation, without which most solid-state physics analysis would be intractable.
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Deviations from periodicity are treated by quantum mechanical perturbation theory. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For theories in political science, see State polity.
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Bibcode : PhP Oxford University Press. Physica Status Solidi B.
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