On this day, only time would give you an idea of how tough these people were. Defining Mental Skills and Toughness for many is a long winded experience. Check them off yourself and rate how well you feel you do each. Setting short term goals keeps an athlete focused on productive actions rather than allowing the mind to wander off onto unproductive thoughts which in turn impact your emotions and physiology. When I rowed, as a crew we would have technical focus points for 20 strokes, after each set of this, the focus moves to the next logical part of the stroke or race plan. After a series of these focus points the race is close to over and our mind had stayed on task.
Talking positively to yourself is about knowing your internal dialogue. People who are mentally tough, have a sense of positive self-efficacy. The Seals would speak encouraging words which also in turn benefits others around them. What an athlete says to themselves when they are behind on the scoreboard has a massive impact on whether they stay behind or take action to make changes. The ability to manage your emotions to ensure you are in the most productive state to compete is a skill most elite athletes develop to some degree. We discuss this in our article on Emotional Intelligence.
As far as the Seals were concerned, it also included the ability to stay composed to make quality decisions which impact the lives of others. This is the difference between an athlete and a SEAL. Athletes will never be in this position. Staying composed as an athlete is a relatively simple task compared to what a Seal must deal with.
Visualizing a successful end result is a hallmark of mental toughness. Every coach knows that visualization is a key skill an athlete can develop which helps them become better at performing at their sport.
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Mental Skills can be taught. It takes time and effort like any other aspect of becoming excellent at any sport. However, in many ways, developing mental skills takes far less effort and is far less stressful than physically training hard. To become excellent in this area, does require the acknowledgement of this area being a game breaker when many other areas are almost equal. If there is anything we can assist you with, please Contact Us. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. The ability to set short term goals. The ability to talk positively to yourself.
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The ability to manage your emotions. The ability to visualize your successful end result. That is it, four critical abilities. Here they are broken down and how it applies to any sport. Setting Short Term Goals Setting short term goals keeps an athlete focused on productive actions rather than allowing the mind to wander off onto unproductive thoughts which in turn impact your emotions and physiology. In addition, higher levels of self-esteem are related to lower levels of self-handicapping prior to sporting events [ 38 ], and self-handicapping has a deleterious effect on performance [ 38 ].
Athletes with high self-esteem present with more positive patterns of perfectionism, specifically these athletes showed less concerns over mistakes and fewer doubts about their actions, which in turn relate to performance gains [ 28 ]. High self-esteem, in the context of performance, is related to better self-regulation; this means that when there is no alternative way to accomplish the task persistence is higher, but, when persistence is a poor strategy those with high self-esteem know when to quit [ 40 ].
The distinction between persistence and quitting is important in a sporting context where negative outcomes can occur by persisting in the face of danger. This sentiment underscores the notion that development of MT can be beneficial outside the sporting arena, but, the sporting arena can be the anchor for such development.
Indeed, many of the studies regarding mental toughness in athletes have focused on elite athletes or the psychometric properties of the measurement tools with only a few studies examining how MT is related to performance, cognitions, or behaviors [ 7 ].
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Examining the MT latent profile structure in endurance athletes can help expand the knowledge base about MT, namely, whether athletes fall into MT categories in which they excel or need improvement across all of the studied factors or if there are MT factor variations e. Creating latent classes allows for the construction of subgroups characterized by multiple dimensions, a global MT type, and how these MT types differ with respect to important outcomes of performance, psychological characteristics, and demographics.
Cluster analysis has historically been used to identify MT profiles in athletes. Affective intensity and directionality were measured in athletes. Positive affective profiles were associated with better coping [ 42 ]. The clusters differed on total MT, as well as showing mean differences on MT sub-scales and there were significant differences between clusters on energy control [ 21 ]. Studies examining MT using cluster analysis have had small sample sizes, [ 21 , 43 ] been skewed toward males [ 44 , 45 ], and mostly conducted in team sports [ 44 , 45 ].
Latent profile analysis, a more robust method than cluster analysis, using mental toughness measures has not been conducted in endurance athletes. Furthermore, previous studies of cluster analysis did not use multiple MT measures to create a comprehensive athlete MT profile nor have previous studies examined MT profiles in relation to demographics, performance, and satisfaction. The creation of MT profiles lends itself to applications of detecting low MT athletes and using interventions to change thoughts and behaviors.
As such, we aimed to identify the number of MT classes using a latent profile analysis LPA , discern the number of athletes within each class, and characterize the MT profile of each class. We hypothesized that MT in endurance athletes is comprised of latent classes that can be generated by the clustering of seven mental toughness factors as measured by the SMTQ confidence, constancy, control , PPI-A determination, visualization, positive cognition, self-belief , and self-esteem as measured by the RSE; the validity of the MT latent profiles was tested against demographics, sports characteristics, division placement, and race satisfaction.
This quantitative, survey study used a convenience sample. Participants were assured confidentiality. Implied consent was provided by survey completion.
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Participants were required to be, 1 ages 18 years or older, 2 a self-declared endurance athlete, and 3 English speaking. There were no other inclusions or exclusions.
Social media and email communication were used for subject recruitment, allowing for large scale targeting of potential subjects in a relatively short time. Recruitment was researcher-initiated through social media using direct posting of the recruitment call-to-action posted on Facebook pages and dedicated to various endurance athletic sports e. Postings were shared by individual athletes on their personal Facebook pages. Postings were also placed on Twitter, LinkedIn, websites dedicated to endurance sports, and emails sent directly to coaches and athletes.
The three tools were used in combination because the statistical power to correctly identify the number of classes in the latent profile analysis is increased with a higher number of indicator variables [ 47 , 48 ]. Although the eight indicator variables from the three tools were significantly correlated with correlations ranging from 0. The responses are on a 4-point Likert scale anchored by not at all true and very true.
Four sub-scales were identified in the PPI-A: determination e. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit and high factor loadings with low standard errors Golby et al. The PPI-A has been associated with sports performance [ 51 ]. The RSE is a item tool that measures global self-esteem with responses on a 4-point Likert scale anchored by strongly agree and strongly disagree e.
Higher scores indicate higher levels of self-esteem.
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The RSE has shown good construct validity with high factor loadings on a single-factor model [ 52 ]. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariable analyses were conducted using SPSS v For every factor, a higher score indicated a higher degree of the measured factor. Latent profile analysis LPA , a model-based cluster analysis of the mixture modeling family was used to classify related individuals [ 53 ].
The use of categorical indicator variables in a mixture model is a latent class analysis whereas continuous indicator variables, such as those used in these analyses, is a LPA [ 54 ]. The advantage of LPA versus clustering methods is the statistical assignment of an individual to a latent class. An average posterior probability for each class can then be calculated with higher average posterior probabilities indicating a better fitting model [ 53 ].
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Another advantage of LCA is that it is scale independent; therefore, the data does not need to be standardized [ 53 ] and the assumptions of linearity and normality of data do not need to be met [ 55 ]. A series of models with increasing number of classes, from 1 to 4, was conducted to determine the best fitting model. A significant test indicates that the n-class solution is better than the n— 1 class solution [ 56 ]. Entropy, a measurement of predictive power where 0 indicates no predictive power and 1 indicates perfect prediction, was examined [ 53 ]. Finally, the average posterior probabilities for the different class solutions were considered; a model with a good fit would have high individual probabilities to a single class.
LPA was conducted in Mplus version 7 [ 57 ]. Eta squared was calculated as a measure of the effect sizes [ 58 ]. After latent class identification, ANOVA tests were conducted to compare mean scores for the eight factors between the classes and a series of chi-square tests of association examined whether class membership differed by the demographic variables age, gender , sports characteristics years competing in sports, hours per week of training, primary sport , and sports outcomes placement in division, satisfaction.